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Transforming Suspension Practices Using Restorative Justice

Transforming Suspension Practices Using Restorative Justice

Restorative justice—addressing wrongdoing and root causes and making amends—has soared in popularity over the last few years, as traditional suspensions and expulsions are now being viewed as ineffective and damaging to students. Suspensions often cause students to miss out on learning opportunities and fall further behind in their studies than they already are.

As many schools shift to the implementation of social and emotional learning (SEL) lessons into their curriculum, restorative practices are a great tie-in to building relationships, managing emotions, and giving students and educators an opportunity to build these skills in a way that is productive and useful to all.

Let’s dive deeper into what restorative justice is, what the benefits of it are, and how you can work to integrate it into your school’s culture.

What is restorative justice?

Restorative justice is an alternative to traditional student discipline. It’s a way for students to resolve conflicts while at school, usually through peer-mediated small groups. The focus of restorative justice is for students to reflect on the root cause of the behavior that caused them to act out in the first place, and to focus on repairing the damage to the relationship, whether it’s with another student or an educator.

Restorative justice practices have these common principles, as laid out by the Oakland Unified School District implementation guide:

  • Builds relationships
  • Strives to be respectful to all
  • Provides opportunity for equitable dialogue and participatory decision-making
  • Involves all relevant stakeholders
  • Addresses harm, needs, obligations, and causes of conflict and harm
  • Encourages all to take responsibility

Why implement whole-child teaching and SEL into restorative justice practices?

Because both restorative justice practices and SEL are still in their infancy in some schools, many educators may not see the tie-in between these two initiatives. However, the benefits from the pairing of restorative practices and SEL are plentiful. Here are a few reasons why schools should teach these two things hand in hand:

1. Improved school climate

Restorative practices and SEL are complementary strategies that can help you to create a schoolwide climate that is safe and supportive. Students who feel like they have both ownership over their behavior and the ability to change it feel empowered. By getting to the root cause of behavior in students who act out, all students can become more connected to their school. Strong scientific evidence demonstrates that increased student connection to school promotes:

  • Motivation
  • Classroom engagement
  • Improved school attendance

Sounds pretty great, right? Creating a culture at your school that shows supportiveness, encourages kindness, and promotes prosocial behaviors has many lasting impacts on the students at your school.

2. Improved student relationships

Restorative practices foster healthy student relationships with teachers and other students. When students are given a chance to develop these healthy relationships, they are less likely to misbehave. Restorative practices help to show students that all feelings are valued equally. 

3. Reduced conflicts

Restorative practices with whole-child and SEL components help to hold students accountable for their actions. When students acknowledge their behavior and why it was harmful to others, they can work to fix the behavior and prevent it from happening, reducing overall conflict. Restorative practices give students an opportunity to examine their behavior and provide a framework to fix misbehavior, unlike traditional school suspensions or expulsions.

Practical strategies to implement

Like all good things, implementing restorative justice practices will take time and dedication to make them work in your school. Here are a few simple ways to start that process:

1. Morning meetings

Morning classroom meetings are a great way to start the day, checking in with students. Sit your class in a circle or divide it into small groups and begin the day by welcoming students, reviewing the day’s schedule, celebrating student accomplishments, and gauging how the class is feeling that day. Morning meetings provide a transition between home and school and give students a chance to share what’s on their minds that day.

2. Alternative suspensions

Consider implementing an alternative to traditional in-school or out-of-school suspensions. Restorative justice practices are all about giving students a chance to examine and fix their behavior, hopefully, to avoid further incidents. Early-warning dashboards, support programs, and even access to mental health services are just a few of the ways schools are transforming their current suspension programs.

3. Support and training for teachers

Implementing restorative justice practices into your school can’t be done without the support of your teaching staff. Provide opportunities for training your teachers on the specific practices you want to implement at your school, and continue to follow up with your teachers and get their feedback on how the practices are working (or not working in the classroom). It will take time and lots of trial and error to find the practices that work best for both your teachers and students, so be willing to change and adapt as your school gains traction.

Transforming your school culture isn’t easy—but it can be so worth it. Try one of these four simple steps to improve your school culture to get started!

This post was originally published April 2019 by Brita Hammer and has been updated.'s picture
McKenna Wierman

McKenna Wierman studied Journalism at the University of Mississippi, and has worked with Edmentum since June 2016. She currently serves as a Digital Marketing Specialist, and believes that empowered teachers are the key to successful students.